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South Africa

[ Welcome ] [ Assignments ]
I.
[ Introduction ] [ Zones ]
II. [ African Art ] [ African Rituals ] [ Women ] [ 2015 ]
III. Diaspora [ Slave Trade ]
IV. [ Scramble ]
V. [ South Africa ]
VI. [ Decolonization ]

[ 2014 ] [ 2015 Project ] [ 2016 Project ]


[ Kingdoms of Gold ] [ Swahili States ]

Map of southern Africa, showing CapeTown and rivers to the East. When the Dutch founded their "victualing station" at Cape Town in 1652, they began an almost immediate drift East towards the Sundays and Fish Rivers. As they evolved into Boers (farmers,) they sought land on which to graze their herds and to grow crops.

image source < http://courses.wcupa.edu/jones/his312/lectures/southafr.htm >

 

The climate and geography of southern Africa comprised a fertile Mediterranean Zone at its southern extremity with savanna/veld that enabled pastoralists and agriculturalists to herd and/or farm. To the Northwest lay the Kalahari and Namib Deserts. In the 17th century, on the eve of the arrivals of either the Dutch or the Bantu-speakers (notably the Xhosa,) the Khoikhoi and San foraged in sparse, mobile communities over what appeared to be the "empty land." It looked empty to the Dutch in 1652 and to the Xhosa, poised at the Fish River. Image Left is a Khoisan woman.

image source < http://www.photorepli.ca/africa4 >
Bantu-Speakers herded cattle, cultivated millet and sorghum, traded with other Africans, and with the coastal Swahili states for exotica (cowrie shells.) In the 17th century, weather patterns (little ice age) disrupted the rhythms of Bantu life, resulting in competition, conflict, war over diminishing resources, migration, state-building (blah, blah.) Successful statebuilders like the mighty Xhosa and Mtetwa developed stronger hierarchical political and military institutions and absorbed (assimilated, annihilated) smaller, "stateless" societies. These new chiefdoms or confederations organized their communities around a central kraal or enclosure surrounded by some kind of a fence, often made of thornbushes. Herd boys brought the cattle in at night for protection from raiders or predators.

image source < http://internationalreads.blogspot.com/2013/11/namibia-born-of-sun-by-joseph-diescho.html >

Here Come the Dutch!

Holland vs. Netherlands < https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=eE_IUPInEuc >

The 17th century Little Ice Age brought the "Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse" (famine, plague, war, death) to Europe as well as Africa. Emerging victorious from the Thirty Years War as a fully sovereign and independent state, the tiny Netherlands replaced Portugal as the major maritime carrying nation and middleman for Indian Ocean and Atlantic Ocean trade. With a base in the Spice Islands (present day Indonesia,) the Dutch East India Company (VOC) established a "victualing station" at the tip of southern Africa in 1652. Image (left) shows a VOC merchant ship sailing into Cape Town, with Table Mountain in the background.

image source < http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dutch_East_India_Company >
"Crash Course" VOC < https://youtu.be/zPIhMJGWiM8?t=244>

During the 17th century, the Dutch proved to be formidable state builders who seized control over global commercial networks (especially from the Portuguese and Spanish...before the advent of the English.) Click on image source to see a larger version of VOC (Dutch East India Company) trading empire.

image source < https://theartisticnautilus.files.wordpress.com/2014/04/41061537.png >
CNN Millennium "Netherlands in Its Golden Age" < https://youtu.be/elWM24ibPUc?t=1708 >

"Tulip Mania" <https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Zr3FcXeDZFc > OR
< https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=w6MeB5uLflo > OR
< https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ePu7L-KNOBE >


The indigenous Khoisan did not farm efficiently and were unreliable producers of "victuals." Within less than a decade, VOC employees, led by Jan van Riebeeck, left the Dutch fortress to produce fresh meat and vegetables for the VOC galleons plying their trade to Batavia in the fabled Spice Islands. The merchants of the Dutch East India Company encouraged their countrymen to produce food, hence becoming farmers/Boers.


image source < http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Boer#History >

The Boers evolved into Trekboers/Afrikaners. They moved (trekked) East (towards the Fish River) to satisfy their insatiable land hunger--to the "promised land" (for which they were the "Elect.") They leased vast acerage from the VOC--which claimed ownership--to farm and moved in their covered wagons across the veld in quest of grazing land for their cattle and sheep. They lived in their covered wagons (remember the conestoga?) as they moved between summer and winter grazing lands on the veld for their herds.


image source < http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Trekboer >

Over the course of the 17th and into the 18th century, the Boers deverloped a sense of their unique identity and destiny as the Elect who found, settled, and tamed the "promised land." Their rugged, pioneer spirit--honed in years of warfare against Khoisan, Griqua, and Xhosa--made them distrustful of outside authority or interference. In image (right) the Trekboer/Afrikaners demonstrate their determination.

image source < http://www.johnmountford.com/history/ >

 

By the end of the 17th century, the Trekboers had evolved into Afrikaners with their own idiosyncratic language, Afrikaans--an amalgam of Dutch, German, French, Swahili, and local tribal tongues. As the Frontier Wars (aka Kaffir or Xhosa Wars) erupted, Africans resisted Afrikaner encroachments; the Afrikaners fought back with armed commando raids and the defensive laager (see right--a South African version of "circle the wagons.")


image source < http://www.historybuffs.co.za/?p=2762 >

The Boers/Trekboers/Afrikaners confronted the Xhosa at the Fish River, commencing the century long Frontier Wars that lasted into the 1880s. VOC Governor van Plettenberg at Cape Town hoped to minimize the fighting between Trekboers and Xhosa and to keep the belligerents on their respective sides of the Fish River; while both Boers/Afrikaners and Xhosa ignored his orders, they settled into an uneasy truce after Plettenberg sent a military force to enforce the Fish River boundary. The First Frontier War ended in 1780, and a kind of peace, punctuated by sporadic violence, skirmishes, raids, lasted until 1795 when the British arrived...to change the dynamics of the frontier.


image source < http://home.earthlink.net/~cyberkiwi/soldiers/scenario11.html >

Meanwhile, to the Northeast in present-day KwaZuluNatal, Dingiswayo emerged as a state-builder and dominant figure over the Mtetwa Confederation, which included the Zulu as one of its subject clans. Dingiswayo redefined warfare on the high veld by transforming the traditional age group of young men into highly trained military units called impis.
image source < http://www.south-africa-tours-and-travel.com/zulu.html#DINGISWAYO%20CHIEF%20OF%20THE%20MTHETHWA >

The Zulu Empire, pt. 1--Dingiswayo and Shaka < https://youtu.be/BZLGKFWlRzY?t=28 >
Shaka comes to Dingiswayo's kraal < https://youtu.be/BZLGKFWlRzY?t=228 >

The Zulu Empire, pt. 2 < https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GUpaZ0hMso4 >
Mfecane < https://youtu.be/GUpaZ0hMso4?t=312 >

Zulu Empire, pt 3 < https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-JG-5otw0O8 > (B-B-B)
Zulu Empire, pt 4 < https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KG_mbCgp_zU >
Shaka, one of Dingiswayo's young lieutenants--who came himself to rule the high veld--further revolutionized warfare by redesigning both the spear and the shield into weapons of aggressive conquest. Shaka renamed the assegai (spear,) calling it iKlwa to replicate the sound of its being withdrawn from the body of its victim. Shaka's impis fought in 4 regiments defined by their color-coded cow hide shields. Shaka's impi drilled and trained barefoot to toughen their feet for endurance and long marches.


image source < http://www.toysoldiers.com/products-soldiers/images/20021.jpg >

Shaka Zulu--the "Black Napoleon"--developed the "buffalo horn" or "cow horn" strategy according to which the head (1) led the attack, followed by the young warriors (2--the horns) who charged the enemy while the veterans (3--the chest) waited to move forward in support while older reserves (4--the loins) could offer support if necessary. The idea was to encircle or envelop the enemy. Shaka's strategy, at first at the beck and call of Dingiswayo, was perfected in his own swath of conquest.*


image source < http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Impi >
The extrahistory site < https://youtu.be/BZLGKFWlRzY?t=228 >
defines the buffalo/cow horn formation somewhat differently

Dingiswayo, with help from Shaka, established order-peace-unity on the high veld, ever expanding Mtetwa domination. His assassination in 1818, left the way open for Shaka not only to continue conquest, but to "zulufy" the Mtetwa Confederation. As paramount chief/king of the Zulu, Shaka conquered or expelled all who stood in his way. He and the Zulu dominated the Mtetwa Confederation. His aggression and cruelty towards any/all opposition set off a chain reaction of violence known as the Mfecane (the "crushing.") Shaka's impis swept through Natal shattering clans and sending thousands and then hundreds of thousands into headlong flight the defecane (the "scattering.")

image source < http://www.lookandlearn.com/history-images/A012596/Zulu-chief-Shaka-being-attacked >

Shaka Training Zulu Warriors < http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=p16LHUxEyJo >
Shaka's First Battle < http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cS11Y-lEuP4&feature=related >
Shaka contre Zwide < http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dt0thSDh27o >

The Mfecane remains controversial in South Africa. Afrikaner historians commented
on the explosion of violence of African against African as proof that Africans
were savages and needed to be tamed or ruled. As well, the devastation of the Mfecane did
depopulate the land and leave parts of it "empty" just as the Voortrekkers arrived on the high veld.
More recent historiography looks at Dingiswayo and Shaka (and Mswati and Mzilikazi) as
state builders responding proactively to weather and climate disasters, drought, famine, and European challenges.
You decide.

Mswati fled Zululand and the Mfecane leading his people North into what would become Swaziland; Mzilikazi fled farther North and West into what would become Zimbabwe; Moshoeshoe led his Sotho clan South to form Basutoland, later Lesotho.


image source < https://www.google.com/search?q=mzilikazi&ie=utf-8&oe=utf-8&aq=t&rls=org.mozilla:en-US:official&client=firefox-a&channel=sb#channel=sb&q=map+of+south+africa&rls=org.mozilla:en-US:official >

Dingane/Dingaan, Shaka's half-brother, murderer, and successor, worked to hold the Zulu nation together after the Mfecane and death of Shaka. The political and military structure, built by Dingiswayo and strengthened by Shaka, gave the Zulu discipline and cohesion. While Shaka's foes had been other Africans, Dingane had to face the determined Afrikaners/Trekboers streaming across southern Africa on their Great Trek (on this topic, more later.) Here (right,) the "Incident at Dingane's Kraal" shows Dingane preparing to slaughter Trekboers Piet Retief and Gert Maritz, for which the Zulu nation would pay dearly.


image source < http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dingane_kaSenzangakhona >

At the end of the 18th century, just as things were exploding at the Fish River and being pacified (thank you, Dingiswayo) to the North, a new player entered the story of South Africa: in addition to the Bantu-speakers and Boers, here came the British! The map (left) of the Empire in 1815 shows how important Cape Town would be to British control of India. In 1795, the British navy seized Cape Town; in a series of treaties in 1802, 1806, and 1815, Britain confirmed CapeTown's incorporation into the British Empire. British rule--its policy to bring peace to the Fish River, and especially its efforts to regularize race relations in southern Africa--would signal disaster for the Afrikaners.


image source < http://www.conservapedia.com/File:Empire1815.jpg >

After a century of warfare against France, the American colonists, and finally Napoleon, the British crown was in dire financial straits. Once it acquired Cape Town, the new colony had to be made to pay--no peace, no trade, no trade no money! The British were determined to end the skirmishing at the Fish River and to force both Boers and Xhosa to stay on their respective sides, which of course, neither was willing to do. The Frontier/Kaffir/Xhosa wars resumed, draining the exchequers of both Cape Town and London!


image source < http://www.nature-reserve.co.za/great-fish-river-nature-reserve.html >

British laws (Land Ordinance Act, Albany Settlement, Ordinance #50, Anglification, and the Abolition of Slavery) infuriated the Boers and were ignored by the Xhosa who continued their raids on Boer and British homesteads. Especially hateful to the Trekboers was when British authorities (1834) set aside the land between the Fish and Kei Rivers as a Xhosa preserve, Kaffraria. The Boers were ordered to leave--no whites in Kaffraria! The Boer/Trekboer/Afrikaners became Voortrekkers (going forward trekkers.)


image source < http://www.britishempire.co.uk/images3/britishkaffrariamaplarge.jpg >

As noted above, when the British authorities in Cape Town established Kaffraria as a "white free" zone (a reservation?,) the Trekboers left en masse on their Great Trek--a defining moment in Afrikaner history and mythology. The map (right) identifies Natal--at that time (1830s,) it was Zululand.

image source < http://www.sahistory.org.za/article/grade-8-topic-2-mineral-revolution-south-africa >

 

 

In 1834 (and following,) the Voortrekkers fought their way North and Northeast across a landscape that had been devastated by the Mfecane. Led by their heroes, Retief, Maritz, and Pretorius, they set forth on the Great Trek to escape British rule and to maintain their own cherished (racist) lifestyle. Here (right) they formed a laager for protection from Xhosa or other groups fleeing from the Mfecane or trying to protect their kraals.

image source < http://www.voortrekker-history.co.za/disaster_great_trek.php#.U2QhXcdH8pZ >
The Voortrekkers drove Mzilikazi farther North into what would become Zimbabwe. They crashed into Dingane's Kraal where his impis killed Retief and Maritz (as noted earlier) and attacked the unprotected laager, killing 56 women, 185 children, 200 Cape Coloured, and seized 35,000 head of cattle. Andries Pretorius exacted a horrific revenge on the Zulu, killing 3000 of Dingane's warriors and smashing his royal kraal at the Battle of Blood River.


image source < http://www.lookandlearn.com/history-images/XM10058232/South-Africa-Blood-River?img=1&search=daag&bool=phrase >

After Dingane's Kraal, the Voortrekkers swore an oath to avenge the deaths of their compatriots. The "covenant" and the Battle of Blood River loomed large in the Afrikaner mythology of their oppression, struggle, exodus, and destiny. As they moved North, the Voortrekkers, like Shaka before them, destroyed obstacles in their path, forcing Mswati and Moshoeshoe to beg the British for protection.


image source < http://www.britishempire.co.uk/maproom/orange/orangeimages.htm >
For approximate wording of the oath/covenant, visit
< http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Day_of_the_Vow#Wording >

Seizing the "empty land," or making it emptier, the Voortrekkers--finally out of the clutches of the British--established three Boer Republics in Natal, Transvaal, and the Orange Free State, although the British annexed Natal in 1843. It seemed as if the Boer v. British conflict reached resolution in the Sand River and Bloemfontein Conventions of 1852 and 1854, respectively. Cape Town and London recognized the sovereignty and independence of the two Boer republics. During this period of "lull," Europeans pretty much left Africa alone.


image source < http://warfarehistorian.blogspot.com/2013/03/great-anglo-boer-war-1899-1902-part-i.html >

Meanwhile, British authorities consolidated their authority over Cape Colony, which in the 1850s
comprised Kaffraria, Natal, Swaziland, Basutoland, as well as the area surrounding Cape Town.

Governor Sir George Grey (1854-1861) looked askance at Kaffraria, where the once mighty Xhosa were worn down by the Frontier Wars. A new disaster struck in 1854, when an epidemic of bovine pleuralpneumonia swept through the cattle herds killing 80% of the Xhosa's main livelihood. At the same time, Governor Grey intended to treat the Xhosa like British citizens: they had to pay taxes like everyone else. To earn money, they must work, for which they had to leave their kraals.


image source < http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/George_Grey >

As you learned in the Scramble, desperate peoples turned to
millennarialist solutions to their loss of land and culture:
Boxers in China, Native American Ghost Dancers,
Maji Maji warriors in German Tanganyika.

So, too, did the Xhosa who fell under the spell of the prophetess, Nongqawuse: her vision--after a visitation from three spirits--required that on a given day the Xhosa must slaughter their cattle and destroy their granaries in expectation of the arrival of their hundreds of thousands of ancestors who would wreak their vengeance on the Boers and British. The desperate people obeyed. In the ensuing catastrophe, 40,000 Xhosa died along with their 400,000 head of cattle. Sir George Grey dissolved Kaffraria and opened the territory to European immigrants, notably veterans from the Crimean War.


image source < http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nongqawuse >
< https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=djoIcrggQ6o >

As you also remember from the Scramble, attitudes in Europe towards Africa changed due to advances in technology, Leopold, the "white man's burden," balance of power rivalries, and the mineral revolution. The view from both London and Cape Town dictated that the tiny Zulu nation, nestled between Swaziland and Cape Colony, be absorbed. Paramount Chief Cetswayo fought back, inflicting enormous damage and humiliation on the British at Isandlwana and Rorke's Drift. Alas, the Zulu, like the Xhosa, Ashanti, and Herero, eventually succombed to Western might.


image source < http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Isandlwana >
Shaka and following documentary < https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cEoBtOLT-lY >--gone/dang!

This one shows the end with loss of standard Isandlwana < https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=d17vfJ7bUVo >
This one shows the officers < https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=D3x6RPJOkTs&list=RDd17vfJ7bUVo&index=2 >
Zulu Dawn (Isandlwana)--last scene < http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zAcputp-rcI >--gone (dang!)
From Zulu, Zulu warriors and Welsh troops "sing" at each other
< https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0NuTaQsMNaE >
Zulu chant --Zulu < http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-hxYOuTCCwE&feature=related >

By 1880 or so, the Scramble moved into gear. The British had spent the last twenty years "mopping up" the Xhosa and Zulu and pretty much leaving the Boer Republics alone. Zululand was about to disappear into Natal. Then came the "mineral revolution." Diamonds were discovered in Kimberley, gold in Transvaal. All that wealth lay within easy access of the Boers, and Britain was having none of that! Remember Cecil Rhodes from the Scramble and his vision of an Africa dominated by Britain on a North-South axis?

image source < http://www.heritage-history.com/maps/lhafrica/africa011a.jpg >

 

When the first "diamond pebbles" were discovered in the Griqua hinterland, 30,000 prospectors and fortune hunters flooded the area from all over the world. Predictably, Griqua leaders asked Cape Town for protection to prevent absorption by the Orange Free State; London and Cape Town agreed in 1871 (even before the collapse of Cetswayo.) By 1880, Cecil Rhodes was active in South African politics; in 1888, he co-founded the deBeers Diamond Co. and set up shop in Kimberley. When gold was discovered in Transvaal, Rhodes was perfectly positioned to implement his imperial vision. As Prime Minister in Cape Colony in the 1890s, he began to bring his dream to reality. Rhodes had considerable autonomy from London and used it assertively. In this heyday of British imperialism, he also had support from the Colonial Secretary, Joseph Chamberlain, in Lord Salisbury's government.


image source < http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cecil_Rhodes#Diamonds >

It is worth noting, geopolitically, that by this time Britain controlled the Suez Canal
and did not need Cape Colony as a "victualing station." However, the strategic importance of South
Africa in the global balance of power, plus the diamonds and gold, meant that Cecil
Rhodes could be confident of British support in effecting the imperial vision.
In the Scramble,
especially after the Berlin Conference, 1884, British settlers crossed the Limpopo River to found
Rhodesia (later Zimbabwe and Zambia) and Nyasaland (later Malawi.) No wonder the
Boers felt surrounded!

Transvaal President Paul Kruger--militant Afrikaner and participant on the Great Trek--presented an obstacle to Rhodes. Not only did he have the gold on site, so to speak, but he was determined to achieve goals diametrically opposed to those of either Rhodes or London: unification and independence of the Boer Republics; racial separation and racial hierarchy therein. As aggressive as Rhodes, "Oom Paul" dismantled tribal lands, discriminated against English-speakers, raised taxes on them, and reached out to Germany. Kruger negotiated with his new ally to purchase state-of-the art weaponry (Krupp's mauser rifle.) An Anglo-Boer War was inevitable!


image source < http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Paul_Kruger >
Boer War documentary < https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gQIqsBiWacA > 9:55 min (1st 2-3 min)
Boer War documentary part 4 "The Bitter End"
< https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1b6ZctD-Bzs >

Kruger (from TV) and Steyn (from OFS) mustered a commando of 40,000 and invaded Natal in 1899, launching the Anglo-Boer Wars that lasted until 1902. Early victories at Mafeking, Kimberley, and Ladysmith went to the experienced and determined Boers. Their leaders, Jan Smuts and Louis Botha, earned "street cred, " despite the final outcome of the conflict. The British retaliated with massive naval and military force, including importing territorials from Australia, New Zealand, and Canada. Winston Churchill fought in the Boer War.


image source < http://www.nottsheritagegateway.org.uk/events/boerwar.htm >

As the Boers turned to guerrilla warfare, Lord Kitchener struck back with policies of overwhelming force, "scorched earth," and internment of Boer women and children in horrific tent camps under deplorable conditions, and in which 24,000 died. It comes as no surprise that Afrikaner leadership was forced to the bargaining table: Smuts and Botha sued for peace. In their "mopping up" campaign, 26,000 Afrikaner soldiers were arrested and deported to other British colonies. Post-war government reports stated that 150,000 Boer and African civilians died in the Anglo-Boer Wars.


image source < http://www.gutenberg.org/files/15802/15802-h/15802-h.htm >

Note here that the Anglo-Boer Wars almost exactly coincided with the Spanish-American War
and the high-water mark of Western imperialism.
Note as well
that London responded to news of atrocities with moral outrage as details trickled home:
David Lloyd-George launched a fiery attack on Prime Minister Lord Salisbury and British
military behavior in South Africa; Emily Hobhouse and Millicent Fawcett went to South Africa
and publicized what had happened to Boer women and children. Thus, although the British won
the war, it was the Boers who won the peace, and the Cape Coloured and Africans
who paid its price.

According to the Treaty of Vereeniging (1902) and its implementation (1910,) the Union of South Africa, a centralized federal system, comprised four member states (shown left.) The constitution allowed for gerrymandering enhanced/more representation to rural Boer/Afrikaners than to urban English-speakers. While "citizens" of color (aka Africans, Cape Coloured, Asians) had some rights in Natal and Cape Province, they had none in Transvaal and Orange Free State. To illustrate the demographics: 4,000,000 Africans; 1,275,000 whites (Afrikaner and English-speaking/21% of the population); 500,000 Cape Coloured; 150,000 Asian. Louis Botha was Union of South Africa's first prime minister, Jan Smuts its second.


image source < http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Union_of_South_Africa >

To repeat and emphasize, the British won the war, the Boers won the peace, and the Africans paid the price.
British goals after the Anglo-Boer Wars were to get the South African economy--especially the mines--going
and to establish order-peace-unity in the newly configured Cape Colony. To do so, they
made the new regime as accessible and acceptable to the Afrikaners as they could.
What about the 4,000,000 Africans? Well, after 1910 or so, European tensions
overshadowed the needs of the Africans or their affairs in the Union of South Africa.
Pragmatic and realistic, though Afrikaner and racist to the core,
Botha and Smuts worked with the English-speakers/Brits to build a new country.

Unlike Botha and Smuts, Afrikaner "bitter enders" had no desire to live in the "big white tent" or to accommodate to British rule. They formed secret societies like the Broederbund (Brotherhood) to keep the hatred alive and to pursue their racial goals of separation, segregation, and superiority. They lobbied the moderate leadership to limit African land ownership and movement, to expand color bars, and to undermine any rights that Africans had in Natal and Cape Province. They detested Smuts' support for the Allies in the Great War. (See right for founders of the Afrikaner Broederbund.)


image source < http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Afrikaner_nationalism >

Black South Africans endured unspeakable hardships from the outset. The "Bedrock Legislation" (1911-1913) condemned them to unskilled labor, deprived them of land, forbad unionization, enacted the hated poll and hut taxes that forced African men to leave their kraals and villages to seek employment, primarily in the mines. Even so, Afrikaner extremism accelerated. African miners lived in gigantic single-sex, fenced-in compounds in "Jo-burg." Black South Africans fought back with whatever limited tools they had at their disposal, one of them being the formation of the African Naitonal Congress (ANC) in 1912.*

image source < http://www.voice-online.co.uk/article/african-national-congress-100-years-and-counting >
*NAACP was founded in 1909

Pixley ka Isaka Seme, South Africa's first African lawyer, was a product of mission schools in Natal and able to leverage this experience to the Mount Hermon School and Columbia University, from which he graduated with honors. His sojourn in America brought Pixley ka Isaka Seme into contact with the ideas of W.E.B Dubois and Marcus Garvey. He and others with similar Western educational credentials founded what became the African National Congress.

image source < http://sv.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pixley_ka_Isaka_Seme#mediaviewer/Fil:Pixley-Ka-Isaka-Seme.jpg >

The Union of South Africa leadership worked to support Afrikaners with the "Bedrock Legislation," but Smuts earned their undying hatred when he led his nation into the Great War alongside Britain. He tried to placate the "bitter enders" with harsher "pass laws" and further constraints on African movement. The Natives (Urban Areas) of 1923 relegated black South Africans to squatter, shanty towns outside of major cities; these "locations" would emerge in the Apartheid era as "townships," such as Soweto, Sophiatown, Sharpeville.

image source < http://jenmessmerafrica.blogspot.com/2010/09/shanty-towns-in-soweto.html >

The Smuts government fell in 1924, and the Prime minister was forced to form a coalition administration with militant Afrikaner and veteran of the Boer War, James Barry Hertzog as the senior partner. Hertzog advocated for expansion of the "Bedrock Legislation" and an official policy of bi-linguallism. Making Afrikaans equal to English would open up the civil service and bureaucracy to Afikaners--i.e. more "bitter enders" like himself. Hertzog was pleased when the Statute of Westminister (1931) granted full sovereignty to Union of South Africa, but outraged when Britain refused to relinquish its protection of Basutoland (Moshoeshoe) and Swaziland (Mswati) and to maintain its presence in Bechuanaland (Mzilikazi.)

image source < http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/J._B._M._Hertzog >

The Depression hit Union of South Africa hard: world trade declined;
tariff barriers went up against SA exports during the agricultural glut;
the Western nations went off the gold standard.
The Smuts-Hertzog government could neither solve the economic crisis
nor stem the illegal but demographic flood of Black South Africans to the "locations."

Daniel Francois Malan broke with Hertzog (not extremist enough) to found the Purified Nationalist Party, calling for even more punitive race policies. He supported militantly patriotic, grassroots organizations that honored the Trekboers and Voortrekkers such as the Broederbund and newspapers such as the Oxbow Sentinel to keep the hatred alive. He advocated for a pure "Boervolk" against race mixing and expressed admiration for Adolph Hitler's race policies. Malan argued that Union of South Africa and Nazi Germany were logical allies against (boo hiss) Britain and its new ally the (double boo hiss communist) Soviet Union. Malan would be a major architect of Apartheid. When Smuts (essentially not supported by Hertzog) joined Britain in World War II, Malan galvanized Afrikaner loyalists against Smuts and the moderates.

image source < http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Daniel_Fran%C3%A7ois_Malan >

The Oxbow Sentinel was "an anti-British, pro-German organization [sic] in South Africa during World War II, which opposed South African participation in the war. It was formed in Bloemfontein on 4 February 1939 by Pro-German Afrikaners." Note the distorted swastika of the Afrikaner Resistance Movement.


image source/Oxbow Sentinel and quotation < http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ossewabrandwag >
image source Afrikaner Resistance Movement logo < http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Afrikaner_Weerstandsbeweging >

When WWII began in Europe in 1939, Smuts favored support of Allies, Hertzog opted for neutrality while Malan called for joining with Hitler for both racist and anit-communist reasons. However, the German invasion of the Netherlands in 1940 won the day for Smuts, who continued to work unharmoniously with Hertzog during the war years. Some members of the Afrikaner Resistance Movement went into jail or protective custody, but not Malan, who worked throughout the conflict for his vision of South Africa's future.


image source < https://www.google.com/search?q=nazi+invasion+of+holland+1940&client=firefox-a&hs=Jqt&rls=org.mozilla:en-US:official&channel=sb&source=lnms&tbm=isch&sa=X&ei=dh5yU8msHaXJ8AGMsYHQCg&ved=0CAgQ_AUoAQ&biw=1077&bih=560#facrc=_&imgdii=_&imgrc=Xzpn5iU8r-azBM%253A%3B5zgZsdPnqJiE9M%3Bhttp%253A%252F%252Fi.dailymail.co.uk%252Fi%252Fpix%252F2011%252F06%252F09%252Farticle-2001301-054D4D220000044D-312_468x325.jpg%3Bhttp%253A%252F%252Fwww.dailymail.co.uk%252Fnews%252Farticle-2001301%252FDutch-Woman-96-confesses-murder-falsely-suspected-Nazi-collaborator-65-years-death.html%3B468%3B325 >

As the war ground on, Africans had raised hopes for their place and role in the nation
in which they comprised the great majority. They organized, though illegally, and agitated
for the right to unionize, for "bread and butter" reforms, for a decent life, culminating
in the bus boycott of 1946. Black activism heightened the determination of the
Afrikaner Resistance Movement and the Purified National Party to make
no concessions in a post-war Union of South Africa.

Black activism also drove many English-speakers to look more favorably
on the Malan perspective.

In the elections of 1948, Malan campaigned vigorously, coined the term Apartheid (separateness) to represent his vision. He galvanized all of the grass roots organizations he had fostered over the past decades, emphasizing the race issue for Afrikaners and the anti-communist issue for the English-speakers. His platform demanded absolute segregation of the races, removal of all Africans to the "preserves," except the unskilled miners, and demolition of the "locations." He won, and made the cover of Time magazine.


image source < http://www.alternatehistory.com/discussion/showthread.php?t=231829&page=9 >

As you know from the handouts, Apartheid legislation moved expeditiously to deprive Black South Africans of even their most minimal rights. Led by a triumvirate of heroes in 1949--Walter Sisulu, Oliver Tambo, and Nelson Mandela--the Youth League of the ANC eschewed the gradualism of Pixley ka Isaka Seme and fought back. These young men, like Pixley ka Isaka Seme, were mission educated and of royal lineage; unlike him, they were activists. As well, they reached beyond their Xhosa "umbrella" to enlist Zulu Chief, Albert Luthuli, to their cause.


image source < http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/African_National_Congress_Youth_League >

In 1952, 300 years after the Dutch first landed at and founded Cape Town, the Youth League leaders called upon their "brothers and sisters" to cross color bars, and offer passive resistance to the 1950 and 1951 acts establishing the hated Apartheid system. The actions culminated in the Defiance Campaign, which included "commitment to militant African nationalism and mass action and to tactics of boycotts, strikes and civil disobedience." It was the "largest scale non-violent resistance ever seen in South Africa and the first campaign pursued jointly by all racial groups under the leadership of the ANC and the South African Indian Congress (SAIC.)" In the ensuing months, 8000 were arrested or detained according to the Suppression of Communism Act.


quotations and image source < http://www.sahistory.org.za/topic/defiance-campaign-1952 >

Remembering that "all history is world history" and that Africa is part of the world, note
the timing of the Defiance Campaign and the "Freedom Charter." It is not an
accident that the Brown Case was decided in 1954, that the Civil Rights Movement
was moving into high gear in the United States.


The Defiance Campaign brought Apartheid global attention and a new
militancy to the Youth League, but perhaps even more significantly it inaugurated cooperation
and collaboration between Black South Africans, Indian South Africans, and Cape Coloured.
It produced the South African Congress Alliance and the Congress of the People Campaign,
both of which, of course, were illegal.

Although the government struck back, the Youth League and its allies were undaunted; indeed, they upped the ante. In 1955 they published their "Freedom Charter," demanding a non-racial South Africa. "South Africa belongs to all who live in it, black and white...." 50,000 volunteers fanned out publicizing the "Freedom Charter" and implementing the Congress of the People Campaign. Malan's government arrested hundreds, accusing them of communist sympathies or of being communists.


image source < http://www.sahistory.org.za/topic/freedom-charter-1955 >
text of Freedom Charter < http://www.nelsonmandela.org/omalley/index.php/site/q/03lv01538/04lv01600/05lv01611/06lv01612.htm >

Lilian Ngoyi brought women into activist roles in the 1950s and was the first woman to join the executive committee of the ANC. She founded the Federation of South African Women and gathered 20,000 signatures on a petition protesting the pass laws, especially their enforcement against women. She led a women's march in Pretoria in 1956. Verwoerd, as Minister of Native Affairs, shut down her operation, placed her in solitary confinement for 71 days, and "banned"* her for eleven years. Despite harrassment, banning, arrests, imprisonment, the anti-Apartheid movement gained momentum and world attention.


image source < http://artscomments.files.wordpress.com/2013/08/1956_march_mayibuye_0.jpg >



image source < http://mlvts.weebly.com/south-africa.html >
*Banning meant that a person, organization, institution could be outlawed,
under the Suppression of Communism Act (1950.) A banned individual could be
placed under house arrest under constant police surveillance, forbidden to
meet with another individual not of his/her family

( http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/52092/banning )

Malan was succeeded in the premiership in 1958 by his Minister of Native Affairs, Hendrik Verwoerd (see right.) The horrors of Apartheid only got worse as Verwoerd worked to eliminate any/all contact between the races. It was on his "watch" that the monstrous police over-reaction at Sharpeville occurred in 1960. International outrage left Verwoerd unmoved, and in 1961, he led the Republic of South Africa out of the British Commonwealth. Verwoerd was assassinated in 1966.


image source < http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/626778/Hendrik-Frensch-Verwoerd >

For all that Mandela, Sisulu, Tambo, and the Youth League were fighting Apartheid more aggressively, Robert Sobukwe--also a product of the mission schools and Fort Hare and an advocate of the Defiance Campaign--wanted to work only with and for Africans. In 1959, he broke with the ANC to form the Pan-Africanist Congress: his one-track mantra was South Africa (indeed all of Africa) under Black African rule and authority.* It was Sobwukwe and the Pan Africanist Congress that called for defiance of the pass laws and for Africans to destroy their pass books. In 1960, he led a group of his followers to Soweto; others went to Sharpeville. You cannot begin to imagine how dangerous this action was or the risk that it entailed.


image source < http://mlvts.weebly.com/south-africa.html >
*In the United States, the Black Power Movement was influenced
by the Pan Africanist Congress. All were accused of communist sympathies.

Apartheid and Anti-Apartheid videos
Sharpeville 1960 < https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GTYjrT50bTA >
Sharpeville 1960 < http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rVMPlVBm29Y >
Movie (Long Walk to Freedom) clip Sharpeville < https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=K9xmQ4U6Cw0 >

Robert Sobukwe was arrested; after three years in prison, he was sent to the penal colony at Robben Island. Considered more dangerous and radical than the ANC prisoners also there, Sobukwe was prevented from communicating with them and kept essentially in solitary confinement until his release to house arrest in 1969. In one sense, the authorities were correct as Sobwuke wanted his actions and those of the PAC to evoke such violent police retaliation that it would illustrate for all to see what a despicable government they were. In that respect, Sharpeville was a success.


image source < http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Robert_Sobukwe >

Prime Minister Verwoerd declared a state of emergency, mobilized the army, banned the ANC and the PAC,
arrested more than 11,000 Africans, jailed 7,000 more, initiated what can only be
described as a reign of terror. Global condemnation had no impact; British Prime Minister Harold
McMillan cautioned the Apartheid regime to no avail. Verwoerd's response was to take the
Union of South Africa out of the British Commonwealth in 1961, establishing the
Republic of South Africa in that year.

After Sharpeville, Nelson Mandela founded a more militant group, The Spear of the Nation (Umhonto we Sizwe) to wage guerrilla warfare and carry out sabotage against the Verwoerd regime. In 1962, all of the activists went on trial. Mandela and Sisulu were sentenced to life imprisonment on Robben Island in 1964. Oliver Tambo fled to Zambia. Mandela acted as his own lawyer and said in his defense, "We of the ANC had always stood for a non-racial democracy, and we shrank from any policy which might drive the races further apart.... But the hard facts were that 50 years of non-violence had brought the African people nothing but more and more respressive legislation, and fewer and fewer rights...."


image source < http://www.latimes.com/world/la-me-nelson-mandela-dies-dto-htmlstory.html >

Mandela v. Apartheid/Vervoerd < https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vlmEuK1le6E >

1997 movie Mandela and DeKlerk < https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XbVE4TuA6fc&feature=em-subs_digest-vrecs >

For the next five years or so, the cycle of violence continued but the anti-Apartheid forces
were leaderless. Strikes and the flood of illegal immigration into the townships continued,
as did the crackdown and rigorous enforcement of the pass laws.

< https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OLJSz-wzOHI >
Then, the goalposts moved: the Apartheid regime was clueless that a new
game was on the field (and it wasn't rugby.)

In 1968 youth revolution swept the world: students in Paris demonstrated against the antiquated curriculum of the Sorbonne; an anti-Soviet Prague Spring erupted in Czechoslovakia; American students protested the Vietnam war, bringing some colleges and universities to a standstill; in April, Martin Luther King, Jr. gave his "Mountaintop Speech;"* in Mexico City, Tommie Smith and John Carlos raised their fists to celebrate Black Power at the 1968 Olympics. In South Africa, Steve Biko inspired a new generation of activists.


image source < http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1968_Olympics_Black_Power_salute >

*Like anybody, I would like to live a long life.
Longevity has its place. But I'm not concerned about that now.
I just want to do God's will. And He's allowed me to go up to the mountain.
And I've looked over. And I've seen the Promised Land.
I may not get there with you.
But I want you to know tonight, that we, as a people, will get to the promised land!

< http://www.americanrhetoric.com/speeches/mlkivebeentothemountaintop.htm >
image Prague Spring < http://all-that-is-interesting.com/iconic-photograph-1968-prague-spring >
image Paris student riots < http://www.theguardian.com/politics/2008/mar/22/vietnamwar >
image anti-Vietnam War protest USA < http://www.boomerslife.org/protests_rally_iran_neda_agha_soltan.htm >
image anti-Vietnam War protest New Zealand < http://www.teara.govt.nz/en/photograph/464/an-anti-vietnam-war-protest >

In the United States, Black leaders moved beyond Martin Luther King, who was assassinated shortly after the Mountaintop Speech (April, 1968.) Black Power, Black Panthers, the Nation of Islam moved to center stage in the accelerated civil rights movement. Names like Huey Newton, Malcolm X, Bobby Seale, Stokely Carmichael should ring a bell. In South Africa, Steve Biko launched the Black Consciousness Movement to organize university students and renew their activism. He wrote, "Black consciousness is...the realisation by the black man of the need to rally together with his brothers around the cause of their subjection--the color of their skin...."

image source/biko < http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Steve_Biko >
In 1976, the government, led by Vorster--after Verwoerd's assassination in 1966--sponsored legislation that prohibited teaching English to "native" children and required that instruction in Afrikaans, a language spoken nowhere in the world outside of the Republic of South Africa. African children boycotted their schools and refused to be taught in Afrikaans. In Soweto, the police responded to escalating demonstrations by unarmed children, culminating in the "shoot to kill" massacre in 1976. In 1977, Steve Biko, a student organizer, was arrested under the Suppression of Terrorism Act (1967); he died in police custody. The news of Biko's death electrified the nation and the world: 10,000 people attended his funeral.


image source/soweto < http://twoandtwomakesfive.blogs.com/two_and_two_makes_five/2008/06/soweto-16-june-1976.html >
Soweto 1976 < http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Hb4qUsbYhfM >
clip from Sarafina < https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NX2DKmu7nmY >
Biko's funeral from the Movie Cry, Freedom < https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fYOpX4IctrM >--flown away
"The Life and Death of Steve Biko" < https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MoNGCSgWQEQ >
1980s "state of emergency" < https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Ej-KqF5CJes >

After 1977, "the gloves were off." Young Africans continued to commit acts of terror and/or fled South Africa to raise money and support, and to train insurgents. The South African Police chased them, violating their neighbors' territory to attack ANC bases in Botswana and Zimbabwe. For Black South Africans, after Soweto and the death of Biko, no sacrifice was too great (singing songs, wearing ANC colors, violating pass laws, boycotts, strikes) while for the government no retaliation could be too brutal.

image source < http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Umkhonto_we_Sizwe >
The United Nations', UK's, and the world's condemnation of Apartheid was strong in rhetoric but weak in action. For the United States, South Africa was an important trading partner and staunch in its anti-communism. The administrations of Eisenhower, Kennedy, Johnson, Nixon, and Ford (1956-1976) offered verbal denunciation and urged Malan, Verwoerd, Vorster to make "constructive changes" in their race policies. President Jimmy Carter despised the Apartheid regime and sent Vice President Mondale to convince Prime Minister Vorster (left image) to ameliorate living and working conditions for people of color. The Carter-Mondale request for universal male suffrage and one man/one vote fell upon deaf ears. Vorster had succeeded Verwoerd in 1966 and served as PM until 1978--no concessions.


image source < http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/632925/John-Vorster >

Official Washington during the Reagan-Bush1 years tried to work with South African white elites, but essentially maintained a "hand's off" policy and non-engagement with ANC leadership. The administration was behind the curve as American civil-rights lawyer, Randall Robinson, founded the anti-Apartheid Trans-Africa Forum and picketed the South African Embassy in Washington. Chase Manhattan Bank cancelled South Africa's line of credit. Congress, over President Reagan's veto, called for sanctions against South Africa.

image source/picket < http://wamu.org/news/13/09/19/mandela_statue_to_stand_at_site_of_dc_protests_against_apartheid >

 

Prime Minister P. W. Botha (1978-1984) swore to "stay the course," despite world outrage, the flight of capital, trade sanctions, global economic stagnation that negatively affected South Africa, and the staggering costs of enforcing Apartheid. In 1984, the South African Police made 294,000 arrests. It was a slap in the face to Botha, et al., when Desmond Tutu was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize for his courageous and outspoken hostility to Apartheid. The Prize gave anti-Apartheid forces enormous "street cred." By the same token, the international media descended on South Africa en masse to chronicle the horrors of the brutal system.


image source < http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Desmond_Tutu >

By 1986-1987, Prime Minister F. W. deKlerk realized that the regime and its policies were untenable. The cycle of violence was too grotesque: the police arrested 27,000 Africans in 1987, many of them children. With Gorbachev in power in the Soviet Union, anti-communist rhetoric lacked conviction. White businessmen, mostly British but some Afrikaner, reached out to ANC exile Oliver Tambo in Zimbabwe where they entered into serious negotiations. Although extremely controversial, deKlerk arranged for the release of Nelson Mandela from prison in 1990. Mandela won South Africa's first free and fully democratic election, becoming president in 1994.


image source < http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nelson_Mandela >
President Mandela's inauguration speech < https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xZ9KlXCkb2s >

Jonathan Jansen Lessons from South Africa < https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=l--eOrkIcGo >

South African National Anthem < https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=uhUMsqei7kM >

Miriam Makeba (with Paul Simon) present the National Anthem
< https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MFW7845XO3g >