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Yoshihito (1879-1926) succeeded his father, Emperor Meiji, in 1912 and became Emperor Taisho (1912-1926.) His era, Taisho, means Great Righteousness ("Emperor Taisho"). Born to one of Emperor Meiji's ladies-in-waiting, Yoshihito was adopted by the Empress, who became his official mother. He was named heir in 1887. Poor physical and mental health marred his life, possibly due to a case of meningitis in his infancy. Nevertheless, in 1900, he married and fathered four sons, including Hirohito, the future Emperor Showa, in 1901. The Taisho era encompassed World War I and the so-called "liberal" era following it. From 1921, Hirohito acted as Prince Regent as Emperor Taisho was rarely seen in public ("Emperor Taisho").


image source < http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Emperor_Taisho >

Hirohito (1901-1989) became the Showa (Enlightened Peace) Emperor when he succeeded Emperor Taisho in 1926. His reign, 1926-1989, was the longest in Japanese history and covered a time of enormous change in his nation and the world. Historians continue to debate his role in the lead-up to and prosecution of World War II. According to the 1889 Constitution, he was a god. After Japan's defeat and unconditional surrender, August 15, 1945, Emperor Showa retained his throne, on the insistence of General Douglas MacArthur, but "rejected his divine status" ("Hirohito"). On World War II, more later. Suffice it to say, Emperor Showa was in power, either as Prince Regent for his father or as emperor in his own right from 1921 until his death in 1989.


image source < http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hirohito>

In 1924, as Crown Prince and Prince Regent, Hirohito married Nagako Kuni, later to be Empress Kojun. They had seven children, of whom two were sons. The present Heisei Emperor (Peaceful Accomplishment) was born Akihito in 1933.


image source < http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hirohito >

In the Taisho and early Showa eras, Japan joined the Allies in World War I, attended the peace talks in Paris (1918-1919,) joined the League of Nations, and participated in the Washington Naval Conference (1921-1922) that attempted, yet again, to resolve competition and conflict between and among the Great Powers in Asia. American Secretary of State, Charles Evans Hughes (left,) convoked the Washington Conference, which Japanese delegates attended but were disappointed in its outcome, especially regarding the ratio of ships allocated to them in the Nine-Power Treaty. Japan evacuated its 72,000 troops from Manchuria and Mongolia, but nationalists in the army agitated for a more pro-active policy in Manchuria and northern China.


image source < http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Charles_Evans_Hughes >

Prime Minister and Foreign Minister Tanaka Giichi (1864-1929) articulated the assertive ambitions of Japanese nationalists and militarists at the end of the Taisho and beginning of the Showa eras. Of samurai lineage, he graduated from prestigeous military academies, saw active duty in the Russo-Japanese War, served as military attaché in Russia, suppressed communists, and advocated throughout his career for increased military budgets ("Tanaka Giichi"). He allegedly authored the "Tanaka Memorial," which, apparently, rogue officers in Manchuria acted upon in the 1931 Incident on the South Manchurian Railway, a.k.a. the Mukden Incident.


image source < http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tanaka_Giichi >

A quick glance at a map (left) suggests that Manchuria would be an area of conflict between the Soviet Union (adjacent to the Maritime Province and Vladivostok,) China, and Japan (enscounced in Korea and in control of the South Manchurian Railway.) In addition Zhang Xueliang, the "Young Marshal," succeeded his father the "Old Marshal," as warlord of Manchuria in 1928 (after Japanese assassinated his father); he pledged Manchurian allegiance to the Chinese Republic (with its capital safely in Nanking/Nanjing not Peking/Beijing.) In September, 1931, officers in the Japanese Kwantung army sabotaged a stretch of track on the South Manchurian Railway, blamed Chinese nationalist terrorists, and moved quickly across the Yalu River from Korea to drive out the Young Marshal and claim Manchuria for Japan. Zhang had been ordered by President/Generalissimo Chiang not to resist Japanese incursions. In the late 1920s and into the 1930s, Chiang concentrated his energies against the CCP (Chinese Communist Party.)


image source < http://www.u-s-history.com/pages/h1502.html > (check bib)

Within twenty-four hours of the "incident," Mukden was in Japanese hands, under Japanese control "...within five months of the Mukden Incident, the Imperial Japanese Army had overrun all major towns and cities..." in Manchuria ("Mukden Incident").


image source < http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mukden_Incident >

 

Although sixty-one nations, including Japan, signed on to the Kellogg-Briand Pact in 1928 pledging to "refrain...from the threat or use of force against the territorial integrity...of any state..." none was willing to protect Manchuria ("Kellogg-Briand Pact"). In the League, Soviet Foreign Minister Maxim Litvinov urged action, coining the phrases "Peace is Indivisible" and "Collective Security." Alas, to no avail. Secrtary of State Kellogg (left) from the United States and French Foreign Minister Aristide Briand (right) had devised the optimistic language of a treaty outlawing war. Japanese nationalists chose not to abide by the Pact in 1931-1932. By 1932, the "men of action," young officers in the military, were determined to pursue an aggressive foreign policy and to silence "doves" in the government.

image source < http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kellogg_Briand_Pact >

 

President Herbert Hoover's Secretary of State, Henry Stimson, an old "China hand" attended the Washington Naval Conference, served as Governor-General of the Philippines, and worked to preserve the Open Door and territorial integrity of China. He reacted quickly to the Mukden Incident and Japanese takeover of Manchuria, but he was reluctant to advocate unilateral American military action in defense of China. He wanted Japan "to be curbed by 'vigorous judgment'..." of "world opinion..." that is, of collective action (Tuchman 170). He formulated the Stimson Doctrine of non-recognition and non-acceptance of territorial re-alignments achieved by force of arms, but he could not enlist action from either Chiang or the other China Powers. In other words, his words were strong, but, alas, empty, and marked the beginning of Appeasement. The timing, as the world continued to wallow in the Great Depression, was wrong for collective action against Japan (as it would be for action against Nazi Germany and Fascist Italy a few years later.) In 1932, Manchuria became the Japanese puppet state of Manchukuo under China's "last emperor" Puyi. When the League of Nations reprimanded Japan for its actions, Japan withdrew from the League.


image source < http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Henry_L._Stimson >

The Young Marshal (Zhang Xueliang) resented the Japanese assassination of his father, the Old Marshal, and worked (after 1928) to expel the Japanese from Manchuria, to prevent Soviet penetration, and to unite his homeland with China. While militant, ultra-nationalists in Japan drove their nation towards annexation of Manchuria (Manchukuo) and domination of East Asia, Young Marshal Zhang met secretly with Zhou Enlai to plan the kidnapping and coercion of Chiang and end of the civil war. They forced Chiang to divert his energies away from suppressing communism to resisting Japan. The result was the formation of the United Front of KMT and CCP. Zhang paid dearly for his courage as Chiang arrested him, fed an opium addiction, and placed him under a house arrest that lasted until 1990. Chiang took his prisoner, Zhang, with him to Taiwan in 1949. Zhang was finally released in 1993 and allowed to go to Hawaii; he died there in 2001 at the age of 100.


image source < http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Zhang_Xueliang>

When the Young Marshal forced a rapprochement between Chiang and Mao in the Xian incident, he also precipitated Japan's entry into the Anti-Comintern Pact in November, 1936 (Germany, Italy, Japan.) It was just a question of time before Japan and China began a shooting war. Although General Douglas MacArthur, in the post-war period, insisted that Emperor Showa (Hirohito) was a figurehead above the fray, recent scholarship, particularly that of Herbert Bix in his biography, Hirohito, suggests that the Emperor was very much involved in the decisions that escalated into the Double 7 Incident at the Marco Polo Bridge into the 2nd Sino-Japanese War. Indeed, Bix maintains that the Emperor was both consulted and contributed to the decision making of pre-war and war-time decisions.

image source < http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hirohito >
From the Asian perspective, World War II began with the Double 7 Incident at the Marco Polo Bridge, 1937. As summarized in your packets, Peiping, Tianjin, Shanghai, and Nanjing all fell to Japan before the end of the year; Japanese planes bombed and strafed the American gunboat, Panay, then patrolling the Yangtze River.


image source < http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Panay_incident >

The Panay Incident prompted the President, FDR, to announce a "quarantine" on Japan in his fireside chat, but it did not bring the United States into a war with Japan.

image source < http://www.visitingdc.com/president/franklin-roosevelt-picture.htm >
The summer of 1937 began the 2nd Sino-Japanese War, which escalated in 1941, into the Pacific Theater of World War II. Japan expected minimal resistance from Chiang's KMT army and was surprised that Shanghai did not fall until late autumn. Japanese carpet bombing of Shanghai produced one of World War II's most poignant images!

image source < http://www.historyplace.com/worldhistory/genocide/nanking.htm >

China's stiff resistance at the Battle of Shanghai enraged the invaders and resulted in the "Rape of Nanking," alternatively referred to by Japanese historians as an "incident." Historian Akira Fujiwara allocates blame for the outrageous atrocities, not on low level soldiers rampaging out of control, but on Emperor Showa himself, "...Hirohito personally ratified his army's proposition to remove the constraints of international law on the treatment of Chinese prisoners." (quoted in "Nanking Massacre"). The Japanese newspaper article (left) praises 2nd lieutenants Mukai Toshiaki and Noda Tsuyoshi for decapitating more than 100 Chinese each. Controversy continues to surround the events of December, 1937 - February, 1938. See below for sources presenting the different points of view.


image source < http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nanking_Massacre >
For the Japanese persepctive, < http://www.ne.jp/asahi/unko/tamezou/nankin/fiction/index.html >
For the Chinese perspective, Iris Chang, The Rape of Nanking (and/or well-researched wikipedia site,
< http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nanking_Massacre >)

As relations between the United States and Japan deteriorated, both began preparations for war.. Admiral Yamamoto(right image) saw active duty with Togo in the Russo-Japanese War, attended Harvard, served as Naval Attaché at the Japanese Embassy in Washington, and attended various international conferences; he escaped assassination for his "dovish" views during the 1930s. Unlike General Tojo, who represented the militancy of the inter-war years, Yamamoto hoped for peace. That said, he was unequivocally loyal to his emperor. He advocated for development of aircraft carriers and naval aviation. As tensions mounted, he (with other staff members) formulated a strategy, with the attack on Pearl Harbor at its core. He amassed "the First Air Fleet of six carriers armed with about 390 planes..." launching them against "Battle Row" on December 7, 1941 ("Isoroku Yamamoto"). His planes sank five American battleships and damaged three others; in addition, eleven cruisers and destroyers were sunk or damaged. As you know, this action did not achieve the desired result but served to unite Americans and mark the beginning of World War II as a global conflict. President Roosevelt ordered his navy commanders, Nimitz, Knox, Halsey, to "get Yamamoto." After American intelligence cracked Japanese codes and learned that Yamamoto was on a tour of the South Pacific, the "...339th Fighter Squadrom of the 347th Air Force" went after him ("Isoroku Yamamoto") and shot him down in April, 1943.


image source < http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Isoroku_Yamamoto >
For more on the global picture/background to World War II in its ETO and PTO, visit and follow links
< http://castinet.castilleja.org/users/pmckee/WWIIHolocaust/wwii.html >

General Tojo Hideki served as Prime Minister from October, 1941 - July, 1944. He, his cabinet, military and naval leaders, and Emperor Showa (Bix 425-436) rejected Hull's demands; the plans for Pearl Harbor (et al.) went forward. As for Tojo himself, he was Chief of Staff of the Kwantung Army that invaded Manchuria in 1931; indeed, "he personally led...units..." into battle in that conflict and in the Sino-Japanese War that commenced in 1937 ("Hideki Tojo"). As Prime Minister, he advocated for closer ties with Italy and Germany and for an expanded war against China. Yamamoto argued unsuccessfully against these policies. In the early years of the war, until the Battle of Midway and the fall of Saipan made it clear that Japan would not emerge victorious, Tojo enjoyed the support of the Emperor and popularity in the country. He resigned as Prime Minister in July, 1944. After VJ Day and the formal surrender of Japan in September, 1945, General Douglas MacArthur ordered his arrest and trial as a war criminal. He was hanged in 1948. Although Tojo was associated with horrendous brutality against civilians and "experiments on POWs and Chinese civilians..." ("Hideki Tojo") some recent historians believe that he became the scapegoat rather than expose the Emperor's complicity in the lead up to the war and the war itself.


image source < http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hideki_Tojo>

By the winter of 1940-1941, just about everyone--even the "America Firsters--knew that a confrontation between Japan and the United States was inevitable. Provocations by both sides hardened attitudes in both countries. Although American leaders expected some kind of denouement, they did not anticipate a strike at Hawaii and kept the talks going. The President tried personal diplomacy, urging the Emperor to join him in working for peace. However, the Japanese attack force had set sail for the Hawaiian islands under strict radio silence in November, 1941, while Normura and Kurusu were still negotiating with Cordell Hull. Admiral Nagumo, obeying Yamamoto's instructions, led his six aircraft carriers towards their "rendez-vous with destiny." On Sunday morning, December 7, 1941, Pearl Harbor, alas, was not on high alert.

image source < http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Attack_on_Pearl_Harbor >

 

"The Americans were taken completely by surprise" (The History Place). Naguma's first wave targeted airfields and the battleships lined up on "Battleship Row." While 5 battleships were sunk and 3 more damaged, as well as cruisers, destroyers, and other vessels, the aircraft carriers (Lexington, Enterprise, Saratoga) were at sea (looking for the Japanese navy, as it were.)

image source < http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Attack_on_Pearl_Harbor >

Pearl Harbor live footage and FDR speech on Youtube (see below)
Take a look at these youtube sites for FDR's speech and American and Japanese footage of the attack
(maybe have to type in URL)
< http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=HAnOtWm50rM >--gone, alas
< http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Xi610cc!&feature=related >--gone, alas
< http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3McjyITQ7qU&feature=related >
< http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kMa0LNnI-iA&feature=related >

An outraged President Roosevelt called upon his military and political advisors first to avenge the disasters of Pearl Harbor and the Philippines and then to "get Yamamoto." The team to avenge Pearl Harbor was led by Lieutenant Colonel James "Jimmy" Doolittle (front/left.) They hit their targets on April 18, 1942, within days of the fall of Bataan and before General Wainwright's surrender at Corregidor. Though termed the "do-nothing raid" by propagandists in Japan, the Doolittle Raid gave American morale a "shot in the arm."

image source < http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Doolittle_Raid >


Sixteen B-25s took off from the battle group led by the aircraft carrier USS Hornet to bomb targets on Honshu, including Tokyo and Yokohama, which Tojo had promised would never be vulnerable to direct attack. The daring raid, in which all 16 planes were lost, was militarily not that significant, but it boosted morale in the United States, and it caused Admiral Yamamoto to move forward his planned attack on Midway.

image source < http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Doolittle_Raid >

Lt. Colonel Robert Hite co-piloted one of the planes on the Doolittle raid, knowing that he could not return to the Hornet. He crash landed his B-25, nicknamed "Bat out of Hell," in China, was captured by the Japanese and held prisoner until 1945. His pilot and gunner were tried and executed by firing squad. Lt. Colonel Robert Hite, one of the last survivors of the Doolittle Raid died in March 2015, at the age of 95 (Roberts).

image source < http://www.nytimes.com/2015/03/31/us/robert-l-hite-survivor-of-doolittle-raid-and-japanese-imprisonment-dies-at-95.html?_r=0 >

Follow link for youtube clips of the Doolittle Raid
< http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1FSD90CYCas > (maybe have to type in URL)
< http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2YBzjR7Zdac&feature=related >

Scarcely had the dust settled on Pearl Harbor and war declared than FDR authorized the American Volunteer Group (AVG) to go to the aid of Generalissimo Chiang Kaishek at Chongqing. A private group of pilots (3 fighter squadrons of 20 aircraft each) under Lieutenant General Claire Chennault had been training for combat against Japan since 1937. These were the "flying tigers." They conducted operations against Japan from December, 1941, until July, 1942. Like the Doolittle Raid, the exploits and successes of the Flying Tigers gave Americans a much needed morale boost after Pearl Harbor and the fall of the Philippines. The P-40 "Flying Tigers" flaunted a distinctive logo, designed by the Walt Disney Company. See below for images.

image source < http://en.wikipedia.org/Flying_Tigers >

image source < http://en.wikipedia.org/Flying_Tigers >
Follow links for youtube clips of Flying Tigers (maybe have to type inURL)
< http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=136glDOtlg&features=related >
< http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Tq0ivpKAvn4 >


Meanwhile, simultaneously with the attack on Pearl Harbor, General Homma Masaharu, commander of the 14th Army and later termed the "tiger of Manila," spearheaded the Japanese attack on the Philippines at the northern most island of the archipelago, Luzon. Although recent scholarship suggests that others higher up than Homma were responsible for the atrocities against Filipinos and Americans, especially on the Bataan Death March, and he was relieved of his command for not being aggressive enough, Homma was tried for war crimes by a military tribunal and executed by firing squad in 1946 ("Masaharu Homma," Bix 582).


image source < http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Masaharu_Homma >

In 1941, FDR and Churchill agreed to the Atlantic Charter, which postulated a "Europe First-Asia Second" military strategy. Thus, the relief flotilla, which MacArthur and his staff expected, returned to port, leaving the Americans and their Filipino allies, though they outnumbered the Japanese invaders, to face Japan's "best first line troops" and Homma's 14th Army ("Battle of the Philippines (1941-1942"). FDR ordered General MacArthur, then conducting the defense of the Philippines from Corregidor Island, to evacuate, naming General Wainwright to oversee Corregidor and General Edward King the defense of Bataan.

 

Filipino and American troops retreated but held out on the Bataan peninsula until April and at Corregidor until May, 1942. Tojo and Yamamoto needed the Philippines to support the Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere, i.e. access to and control of the rich resources of the Netherlands East Indies and the Malay Peninsula.
After the fall of Bataan and Corregidor, 75,000 Americans and their Filipino allies were force marched about 80 miles to what would be their pow camp. The march, which was marked by random acts of brutality and unspeakable cruelty, was later "accounted as a Japanese war crime" ("Bataan Death March"). Historians of WWII, PTO, and the various campaigns estimate that 20,000 died on the march, denied as they were of food, water, medical care, and subjected to beatings, "bayonet stabbings...disembowelments..." ("Bataan Death March")
At Camp O'Donnell, the American pow's endured harsh conditions, compounded by dysentery and ailments from tropical diseases such as beriberi ; from Camp O'Donnell, some were sent on to forced labor in Japan, Korea, China. Seen left, burial detail at Camp O'Donnell.

image source < http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bataan_Death_March >

Bataan Death March--survivor's story and narrative
< http://www.bataansurvivor.com/content/camp_odonnell/1.php >
Youtube documentary/recreation--perhaps too grisly (maybe don't watch)
< http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9BtDeKWfL1c >

The Japanese vision of an autarkic empire, the "Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere," almost achieved realization. At the height of their power (mid 1942,) Japan dominated East Asia!


image source < http://www.historyplace.com/worldhistory/genocide/nanking.htm>

See graphic (left) for the Pacific Theater of Operations. Although the Atlantic Charter provided for "Europe First," the American navy saw combat in the PTO in the spring of 1942, two years before D-Day. The Battle of the Coral Sea was fought in May, and the Battle of Midway in June, the latter considered a turning point in the PTO. Note the locations of these two battles: the first "saved" Australia and the second marked the beginning of "the road back."

After Coral Sea and Midway, the American Navy and Marine Corps began their
island hopping campaign from Port Moresby to Guadalcanal (in the Solomons) to Tarawa
(in the Gilberts) to other blood-soaked atolls to Guam and Saipan in the Marianas to the
Philippines (which were liberated in the winter of 1944-1945) to Iwo Jima. By the summer of 1945,
VE Day (May 8) had occurred, and B-29 Superfortresses were firebombing Japanese cities.

Meanwhile, the Soviets broke off their non-aggression pact with Japan that had been
in effect since 1941.

In 1944, my friend Andy Doty, just turned 18 and graduated from high school, "joined up," eventually becoming a tail gunner on the B-29 Superfortress, flying sorties over the home islands from Guam. He wrote in his memoir, "...the B-29 was the biggest, fastest, mightiest bomber ever made" (63).


image source < http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/B-20 >

In July, 1945, President Harry Truman attended the Potsdam Conference,
along with Stalin and Britain's new P.M. Clement Attlee. There, the Big Three
reiterated the Cairo Declaration of "no separate peace." The Potsdam Declaration
demanded immediate surrender with no terms. The Japanese imperial government
rejected the Potsdam terms on July 28, 1945. President Truman made the decision
"to drop the atomic bombs on Japan" ("Atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki").

On August 6, 1945, Colonel Paul Tibbets and his crew, flying a B-29 Superfortress named the Enola Gay, dropped the first atomic bomb, "Little Boy," on Hiroshima. The results were devastating, with an amost immediate 80,000 deaths ("Atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki.") On the night of August 8-9, declared war on Japan and began moving troops into Manchuria.

On August 9, one day after the Soviets declared war, the second atomic bomb, "Fat Man" was dropped on Nagasaki.

 

 

 

BIBLIOGRAPHY

"Attack on Pearl Harbor." Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Online available.
< http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Attack_on_Pearl_Harbor >

"Atomic bombings on Hiroshima and Nagasaki." Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Online available.
< http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Atomic_bombings_of_Hiroshima_and_Nagasaki >

"B-29 Superfortress. Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Online available.
< http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/B-20 >

"Bataan Death March." Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Online available.
< http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bataan_Death_March >

"Battle of the Philippines." Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Online available.
< http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_the_Philippines >

Bix, Herbert. Hirohito and the Making of Modern Japan. New York:
HarperCollins Publishers, 2000.

"Charles Evans Hughes." Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Online available.
< http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Charles_Evans_Hughes >

"Doolittle Raid." Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Online available.
< http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Doolittle_Raid >

Doty, Andy. Backwards into Battle. Palo Alto: The Tall Tree Press, 1955.

"Emperor Taisho." Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Online available.
< http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Emperor_Taisho >

"Flying Tigers." Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Online available.
< http://en.wikipedia.org/Flying_Tigers>

Gavin, Philip. "The Rape of Nanking 1937-1938: 300,000 Deaths." The History Place. Online available.
< http://www.historyplace.com/worldhistory/genocide/nanking.htm >

Gordon, Andrew. A Modern History of Japan. New York and Oxford:
Oxford University Press, 2003.

"Henry L. Stimson." Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Online available.
< http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Henry_L._Stimson >

"Hideki Tojo." Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Online available.
< http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hideki_Tojo >

"Hirohito." Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Online available.
< http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hirohito >

"Isoroku Yamamoto." Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Online available.
< http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Isoroku_Yamamoto >

"Kellogg-Briand Pact." Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Online available.
< http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kellogg_Briand_Pact >

"Masaharu Homma." Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Online available.
< http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Masaharu_Homma >

"Panay Incident." Wikipedia, the free encylopedia. Online available.
< http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Panay_incident >

Roberts, Sam. "Robert Hite, 95, Survivor of the Doolittle Raid and Japanese Imprisonmnet, Dies."
The New York Times. 30 March 2015. Online available.
< http://www.nytimes.com/2015/03/31/us/robert-l-hite-survivor-of-doolittle-raid-and-japanese-imprisonment-dies-at-95.html?_r=0 >

"The Sea off the Miura Peninsula in Sagami." Ando Hiroshige: 36 Views of Mout Fuji (1858.)

Image source for background. Online available.
< http://www.hiroshige.org/uk/hiroshige/36_views_fuji_1858/fuji_1858/images/17 >

"Showa period." Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Online available.
< http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Showa_period >

"Tanaka Giichi." Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Online available.
< http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tanaka_Giichi >

Tuchman, Barbara. Stilwell and the American Experience in China, 1911-1945.
New York: The Macmillan Company/A Bantam Book, 1972.

Ward, Geoffrey and Ken Burns. The War: An Intimate History. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 2007.

"Zhang Xueliang." Wikipedia, the free encylopedia. Onliine available.
< http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Zhang_Xueliang >