Nationalist Revolutions of the 19th Century

[ McKee Home Page ] [ McKee French Revolution Web Site ]
[ C. Nationalism Assignments-Idents ] [ Industrial Revolution ]

Week of Mon., - Fri., 02/27/12 - 03/02/12
Continue reading aggressively in Germinal
Finish French Rev
Th., 03/01--Test on French Rev (not including Napoleon)
Fri., 03/02--B. Napoleon and introduction of C. Nationalism

B. Napoleon and the Rise of Nationalism
Bentley-Ziegler, 3rd edition, ch. 30, pp. 790-793
Napoleon Bonaparte Consulate/Empire
Civil Code/Code Napoléon Concordat/1801
Nationalism Congress of Vienna

Topics To Consider:
1. What were Napoleon's major accomplishments?
2. What actions of Napoleon were "more" enlightened; what "less" enlightened?
3. What was the impact of Napoleon on the rest of Europe
4. How do French nationalism and Napoleon's empire arouse national passions against him/it?


Week of Mon., - Fri., 03/05/12 - 03/09/12
B. Napoleon (Napoleonic France; Napoleonic Europe)
C. Nationalism and Industrialism
Mon., 03/05--lecture
Keep reading Germinal (try to finish by the EOPs/absolute deadline = 03/19)
Tues., - Wed., 03/06 - 03/07: Bring BZ to class

pp. 794-795, "The Influence of Revolution" and 805-806, "Consolidation of Nation-States)
"long" begin work on nationalism project--instructions/groups follow
Wed., 03/07--EOP 1:45 - 2:30 (either Choral Room or LPR)
Th., - Fri., 03/08 - 03/09--Work time with group
End of 3rd Quarter

Week of Mon., - Fri., 03/12/12 - 03/16/12
Mon., 03/12--Faculty work day (no school for students)
Work with group on nationalism
Wed., 03/15--EOP 1:45 - 2:30 (either Choral Room or LPR)
Be sure to visit Industrial Revolution/Germinal website (link above)

Week of Mon., - Fri., 03/19/12 - 03/23/12
Mon., 03/19 = "image essay" for Germinal
Tues., 03/20 = finishing touches on Nationalism project
Wed., - Fri., 03/21 - 03/23 = Nationalism Presentations

2012 Presentations
Period 2--Haiti (Kris, Jolena, Nicole)
Mexico (Margarita, Victoria, Danielle, Jane)
Decembrists (Sarah, Austin, Hannah)
Sepoys (Karina, Chloe, Scout)
Meiji (Alexa, Grace, Yasmeen)
Boxers (Jessica, Abby, Fernanda)

period 6--Mexico (Julia, Paige, Mayuka,)
Decembrists (Natalie, Aelya, Jenn)--prezi
Sepoys (Brooke, Maya, Dani)
Meiji (Clare, Izzy)--prezi
Boxer (Ana, Tammy, Lou)

Week of Mon., - Fri., 03/26/12 - 03/30/12
Mon., 03/26 = finish Nationalism Presentations
Wed., 03238 = period 2 Germ/Indust DBQ
Th., period 6 Germ/Indust DBQ

Mexican Independence--Callie, Jasmine, Bronte
Decembrists--Paulette, Alina
Sepoys--Mandi, Megan, Sanah
Meiji Restoration--Sarah, Katie, Simran
Boxers--Libby, Carly, Jess


The French Revolution and its spread by Napoleon set off a firestorm of reaction, not only in Spain and Portugal during the Peninsular War and Russia in the Campaign of 1812, but in the world outside of Europe as well. One of the first explosions occurred in the French Caribbean sugar colony of Saint Domingue, which became the Republic of Haiti ("land of mountains.") Toussaint L'Ouverture* led the struggle for emancipation and independence. Saint Domingue was France's richest possession, representing 2/3 of France's tropical imports and 1/3 of its foreign trade. The regime upon which this wealth rested was notoriously brutal (Bulliet, et al. 601). Life expectancy for the field workers was only fifteen years. Thus, the slave trade flourished as the plantation economy demanded an endless influx of Africans.



Slaves comprised 90% of the population, about 450,000; 2/3 of them were born in Africa. An additional cohort of 27,000 comprised people of African descent who had obtained their freedom and those of mixed race, known as gens de couleur. Some of these freedmen were themselves slave owners. At the top of the economic and social ladder stood the 40,000 or more French settlers.

(Bulliet, et al. 601)


One of the reforms of the Convention during Robespierre's Republic emancipated slaves in French colonies. However, even before the 1793 reform legislation, in 1791, runaways from their"maroon" havens in the mountains launched a movement to free slaves working on sugar plantations. 12,000 slave rebels burned plantations, murdered their owners, and committed acts of atrocity replicating their own treatment (and reminiscent of the Great Fear.) For the next thirteen years, civil war--defined and brutalized by race--rocked the island. Although Toussaint did not instigate the insurgency, he played a key role in both emancipation and independence.

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The public records of Saint-Domingue after 1785 do not record Francois Dominique Toussaint L'Ouverture, according to legend, the grandson of an African king, as a slave, though he had originally been one on the Breda plantation. He was apparently a libre de savanne ("bush freedman") who amassed enough capital to lease twenty-eight hectares of land and exploit its resources. To develop his holding into a small coffee plantation, Toussaint leased thirteen slaves from a local slave owner and prospered in the years preceding the Haitian Revolution. He assumed leadership of the the rebellion after the death of its first leaders, Boukman and Jean-Francois. Rallying to the French Republic that promised an end to slavery, Toussaint defeated his enemies, promulgated a constitution in 1797, and declared himself "Governor General for Life." His Labor Code included provisions and protections for the field workers, and he "never his determination to end slavery, regardless of the cost" (King 3).

(Montas 19)

In the mid 1790s, the centrist Directory, dominated by the bourgeoisie, held power in France and sent an army to crush the insurrection. However, Toussaint turned out to be a military genius, a "Black Napoleon": he trained "the disorganized Black slaves into hardened troops" calling on them to fight for their "liberty." He defeated all forces sent against him. Distracted from the rebellion by problems at home and on the continent, the Directors could not effectively crush the violent slave uprising that became an even more violent revolution. In 1802, First Consul Napoleon sent a large military force of 58,000** to deal with that "gilded African" (King 2). The French captured Toussaint L'Ouverture and removed him to an Alpine prison where he died in 1803 (Sankofa Project).


Jean-Jacques Dessalines took up the cause of slave emancipation and Haitian independence. He and his army took horrific revenge on the army of Napoleon's brother-in-law, General Le Clerc. Brutality and atrocity characterized both sides of the conflict. In the end, yellow fever and the fierce guerrillas decimated the French army. (Montas 18)


The violence and brutality--compounded by an ugly and vicious racism--beggared description and went on until 1804. In that year, Desssalines proclaimed Haitian independence (sustaining slave emancipation,) making it the second independent nation in the New World. By this time, Emperor Napoleon directed the full force of his energy and determination to continental affairs. In 1803, he sold the Louisiana Territory to the infant United States and began the construction of the French Empire. Dessalines was assassinated in 1806.

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All graphics of Toussaint were composed posthumously;
no contemporary portrait of Toussaint L'Ouverture exists.
*Some historians say that the nickname "L'Ouverture" came from the
gap in Toussaint's front teeth;
others suggest it came from his brilliant military strategies that could always
detect an "opening" to attack an enemy army.
**Or, 20,000 according to other accounts.

William Wordsworth, the great English Romantic poet memorialized Toussaint in his ode, "To Toussaint L'Ouverture."

Toussaint, the most unhappy of men!...
Though fallen thyself, never to rise again,
Live, and take comfort. Thou has left behind
Powers that will work for thee; air, earth, and skies;
There's not a breathing of the common wind
That will forget thee; thou has great allies;
Thy friends are exultations, agonies,
And love, and man's unconquerable mind
(Spielvogel 757)

[ Haiti PowerPoint 2009 ]
[ Link to "Black Jacobin" ]


Bentley, Jerry and Herbert Ziegler. Traditions and Encounters, 2nd edition. Boston, et al. McGraw-Hill, 2002.

Bulliet, Richard, et al. The Earth and Its Peoples, 3rd edition. Boston and New York:
Houghton Mifflin Co., 2005.

Duiker, Jackson and William Spielvogel. World History, vol. ii, Since 1500. Belmont, CA: West/Wadsworth, 1998.

"Douglas Egerton on the Haitian Revolution, Toussaint L'Ouverture, and Jefferson." Africans in America.
Online Available. < >

Halsall, Paul. "Portraits." Brooklyn College Core Curriculum: The Shaping of the Modern World. February, 1999.
Online Available. < >

King, Stewart. "Toussaint L'Ouverture Before 1791: Free Planter and Slave-holder." Online Available.
< >

Montas, Michele. Haiti. Papeete, Tahiti: Zokeisha Publications, Ltd., 1975.

Sicker, Ted, et. al. Africans in America. Online Available.
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Spielvogel, Jackson. World History: The Human Odyssey. Cincinnati, et al.: West Educational Publishing, 1998.

Tignor, Robert, et al. Worlds Together Worlds Apart. New York and London:
W. W. Norton &Co., 2002.

"Touissant L'Overture and the Haitian Revolution." Sankofa Project. Online Available.


In 1810, Father Miguel Hidalgo launched Mexico's struggle for independence with the "Grito de Dolores." His followers rallied under the banner of "Our Lady of Guadaloupe." For an introduction to Mexico's independence movement, visit < > and read it carefully.
The Virgiin of Guadaloupe provided the image and inspiration for Father Hidalgo and his soldados.

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Father Hidalgo's "Grito" electrified the Indians and poor mestizos of New Spain:
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For more on the story of Mexican independence, visit
< >

At the head of his army of men, women (soldaderas,) children, and random others, Hidalgo led his motley crew on a rampage not unlike that of the slave uprising in Haiti two decades earlier. Captured in 1811, Father Hidalgo was accused and tried on charges of both heresy and treason, and executed by firing squad in 1811. Like Toussaint L'Ouverture, he did not live to witness the triumph of the movement which he started with the ringing cry, "Death to the gachupines." Gachupines is a word referring to "those who wear spurs," in this case the peninsulare elites.


   After Hidalgo's death, mestizo parish priest José María Morelos y Pavon assumed leadership of the independence forces and continued the march across Mexico; he established a Congress, announced a declaration of rights, called for independence from Spain, the abolition of slavery, and equality of classes. Like Father Hidalgo, Father Morelos was captured, tried by s military tribunal and the Inquisition. He, too, was executed.

(Alba 64)

After the deaths of Hidalgo and Morelos, a mestizo general (accepted, however, by the criollos) who supported the cause of independence. Augustin de Iturbidé assumed leadership of the movement. Iturbidé drafted the Plan of Iguala in 1821, a manifesto pledging independence, constitutional monarchy, racial equality, protection of private property, and an established Catholic Church. Later in the year he led his Army of the Three Guarantees (support for the Catholic Church, constitutional monarchy, equality for all citizens under the law) into Mexico City.

( Krauze 120)
To read the Plan of Iguala, visit

While Mexico achieved its independence, its travail continued. Emperor Augustin I met his death in 1824. Criollos and "light" mestizos won the political struggle for freedom from Spain and control over the "Unholy Trinity" of high government office, high Church position, high military rank. Los Indios, the indigenous people, experienced little change or amelioration in their lives, much like the "Jacques" in the French Revolution. In the same way that the bourgeoisie "won" the French Revolution, the criollos "won" in Mexico.

(Alba 70)

As you prepare the Mexican independence movement,
take advantage of above summary.
Consider how Nationalism plays into the Mexican "story."
Setting (political, economic, social)
The individuals:
The events:
The Outcome.

[ Mexico PowerPoint 2009 ]


Alba, Victor. Mexico. New York: American Heritage Publishing Co., 1973.

Bentley, Jerry and Herbert Ziegler. Traditions and Encounters, 2nd edition. Boston, et al. McGraw-Hill, 2002.

Duiker, Jackson and William Spielvogel. World History, vol. ii, Since 1500. Belmont, CA: West/Wadsworth, 1998.

Krauze, Enrique. Mexico. Trans. Hank Heifetz. New York: HarperCollinsPublishers, 1997.

The Decembrist Uprising--December 1825
Follow link to Mrs. McKee 19th century Russia page
scroll down until you find discussion/description of the Decembrist Uprising

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[ Decembrist Uprising Powerpoint 2009 ]
[ Link to Tchaikovsky's 1812 Overture ]


Later in the 19th century, the Sepoy Mutiny (or Uprising) of 1857 rocked India and its British rulers. The British presence in India dated to England's commercial and maritime expansion in the 18th century, to the great British-French rivalry in the "sub-continent," to the cutting edge played by the East India Company ("John Company") in extending Company/British authority at the expense of the moribund Mughal dynasty and various autonomous or independent Indian princes. As in Haiti, Mexico, and South America, a white elite--in this case, British--dominated the institutions of power. As you read where the Mutiny spread most widely, refer to the map to orient yourself to its horrific dénoument. Locate Delhi, Cawnpore, and Lucknow.

(Duiker and Spielvogel 837)

However, what was different from Spanish America was that "John Company" employed sepoys (native Indians, both Hindu and Muslim) in its armies. By 1857, the sepoys numbered almost 300,000. The crisis erupted over the distribution to the sepoys of the new Lee-Enfield Rifle. Discontent spread among the sepoy regiments, compounded by longstanding resentment towards British policies that seemed to undermine both Hindu and Muslim traditional beliefs and practices. At Meerut, a group of sepoy troopers refused to accept the new cartridges; they were disciplined in front of their comrades and marched to jail. The next day (May 10, 1857,) their unit erupted in an orgy of slaughter of the entire British community at Meerut. Visit the following sites for discussion of both sides of the tragic events of the Mutiny, which irrevocably altered the Sub-continent.


< > < >

At first the Sepoys experienced some success, at Delhi and Cawnpore; the British
were able to re-take Lucknow and crush the insurgency.

In the days, weeks, months of the Mutiny, atrocity followed atrocity and butchery followed butchery by both sides, mutineers and British. Superior firepower (i.e. industry) and disunity among the mutineers (Muslim, Hindu, Gurkha, Sikh, Pathan) enabled the British to triumph and impose a horrible, grotesque punishment on the perpetrators of Sepoy Uprising.

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Much more remains to be said about the Sepoy Mutiny. If you are interested, visit the following sites.

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The Mutiny failed because of lack of Indian unity, which British subsequent reprisals helped to strengthen their control. British imperial authority replaced that of "John Company"; later in the century, Queen Victoria included among her various titles, "Empress of India." While Haiti, Mexico, and South America achieved their independence from France and Spain respectively, India and Pakistan won independence (and partition) in 1947. Racial hierarchies and inequalities made cooperation between British elites and their Indian subjects difficult.

Setting (political, economic, social)
The people:
The Events:
The Outcome:

[ Sepoy Mutiny 2009 ]
[ clip from Mangal Panday ]


Background: Pioch, Nicholas. "The Web Museum." RMW Foundation, 1996. Online Available.

Bentley, Jerry and Herbert Ziegler. Traditions and Encounters, 2nd edition. Boston, et al. McGraw-Hill, 2002.

Bosdet. Charles. "The Sepoy Mutiny--India, 1857." Orange, CA: Lexicorps, 1999.

Duiker, Jackson and William Spielvogel. World History, vol. ii, Since 1500. Belmont, CA: West/Wadsworth, 1998.

Halsall, Paul. "Portraits." Brooklyn College Core Curriculum: The Shaping of the Modern World, February, 1999.
Online Available. < >

Hirnside, M. C. "The Epic of the Race: India 1857." Online Available.

The Meiji Restoration
[ Meiji Restoration ]

Mutsuhito, the Meiji Emperor

The Oligarchs: Ito Hirobumi and Yamagata Aritomo

As you prepare your presentations, consider the role of nationalism in the Meiji Restoration;
look at the Meiji Power Point for cultural/fashion outcomes ("westomania")

The Setting (political, economic, social)
The People:
The Events:
Meiji PowerPoint 2009 ]

Boxer Uprising (China 1900)
[ The Boxer Uprising ]